A stroke can affect anyone, at any age. About one in four people worldwide will have a stroke in his or her lifetime.
To prevent stroke, it’s vital to understand your risk factors. Some risk factors — such as age, race, gender and family history — are outside of your control. But you can control other risk factors. Every minute from the onset of stroke to treatment contributes to a loss of brain function and increases the probability of long-term impairment, disability and death. For governments, every year that goes by without action ramps up the social and economic impact of stroke.
Improving outcomes requires effort on all fronts but improvements are possible, even in the most challenging circumstances. As we celebrate World Stroke Day, Dr Siddhant Jain from Shalby Multispeciality Hospitals shares insight into the latest trends and the prevalence rates of Stroke in India.
What are the latest trends in medicine, that can help in stroke prevention?
The root cause of Stroke are diseases like hypertension and atherosclerosis. Medical science is advancing by leaps and bounds, and the latest medicines and therapies directed at preventing or regressing atherosclerosis & to treat hypertension are now available. Latest injectable anti lipid therapies now have been shown to reverse cholesterol deposits in the blood vessels. Interventional therapies like Carotid Stenting and Intra Cranial Stenting with embolic protection can decrease the chances of stroke significantly in suitable patients. Acute stroke intervention also can significantly decrease the neurological damage of stroke. Therapies like intra cranial aneurysm coiling can prevent intra cranial haemorrhage
What are the current stroke prevalence rates in India?
India is home to one out of five people who die from stroke and ischemic heart disease, which is swiftly rising even in younger adults, according to the World Health Organization. This can be attributed to several factors such as rising obesity, poor lifestyle habits, addictions as well as the rapid onset of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension.
Strokes are one of the most common causes of neurological morbidity and mortality. In India, an estimated 17 million people die from cardiovascular diseases in the country every year. Furthermore, according to the findings of the Global Burden of Disease study, the state age-standardized cardiovascular disease death rate of 272 per 100000 population in India is much higher than the global average of 235.
Spreading awareness about early detection and prevention is the most critical step in the successful prevention and management of strokes for crores of people in the country. The figures are also an important reminder for getting a full-fledged evaluation done every year, to ensure early prevention among patients. It also highlights the underlying need for setting up robust medical infrastructure in the country, to combat this problem.
What is your take on the minimal invasive heart surgery procedure, and its swiftly rising popularity among patients?
Minimally invasive heart surgery is revolutionising treatments in cardiac surgery today and is definitively transforming the healthcare landscape. In a minimally invasive heart surgery procedure, small incisions in the side of the chest are made to reach the heart between the ribs, rather than cutting through the breastbone, significantly reducing the chances of infection.
It also has several other benefits such as less blood loss, reduced trauma, and pain, as well as less scarring and a shorter hospital stay. Less painful techniques and a quicker recovery process make it a boon for patients. It also offers more precision for surgeons, with better visualization for more accurate repair. Minimally invasive heart surgery can be performed for many important procedures such as mitral valve repair/replacement, aortic valve repair/replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), ventricular assist device (VAD), atrial septal defect (ASD) repair etc. It is definitely a procedure that is here to stay, owing to its many advantages over traditional surgical techniques.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI) prevention remains a high priority for cardiac surgeons. How do you ensure the same for your patients?
SSI remains one of the most prevalent types of healthcare-acquired infections, resulting in increased readmission rates, and even death in severe cases. As an agile force in the field of healthcare, we do everything in our power to ensure SSI prevention. These infections can be better prevented by following a series of elaborate steps to ensure the safety of the patients. This includes preoperative and perioperative measures. Some of the preoperative measures we follow include glycemic control, to achieve the ideal preoperative blood glucose levels and counselling patients against risk factors like smoking. Perioperative measures such as using wound protectors and the use of antiseptic sutures also decrease the risk of contracting SSIs for the patient. Our hospital is also well equipped to perform more advanced procedures such as minimally invasive heart surgeries, to minimise the risks of infections for patients.